Non-judicial foreclosures are processed without court intervention, with the requirements for the foreclosure established by state statutes.
When a loan default occurs, the homeowner will be mailed a default letter, and in many states, a Notice of Default will be recorded at approximately the same time.
If the homeowner does not cure the default, a Notice of Sale will be mailed to the homeowner, posted in public places, recorded at the county recorder's office, and published in area legal publications.
After the legally required time period has expired, a public auction will be held, with the highest bidder becoming the owner of the property, subject to their receipt and recordation of the deed. Auctions of non-judicial foreclosures will generally require cash, or cash equivalent either at the sale, or very shortly thereafter.
The non-judicial process of foreclosure is used when a power of sale clause exists in a mortgage or deed of trust. A "power of sale" clause is the clause in a deed of trust or mortgage, in which the borrower pre-authorizes the sale of property to pay off the balance on a loan in the event of the their default. In deeds of trust or mortgages where a power of sale exists, the power given to the lender to sell the property may be executed by the lender or their representative, typically referred to as the trustee.
It is important to note that each non-judicial foreclosure state has different procedures. Some do not require a Notice of Default, but start with a Notice of Sale. Others require only the publication of the Notice of Sale to announce the sale, with no direct owner notification required. You need to know the specific procedure for your state.